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2019-04-10 09:48:39

[Abstract] Wuthering Heights is the unique remarkable novel written by Emily Brontë, who is one of the most famous novelists of the 19th century in English Literature. It is considered as a powerful and strange book. The author seizes primary images and enters into the savage field of spirits by her poetic imagination, showing us the conflicts between the keen heart-storm and the savage wilderness. Compared with other works, the heroes and heroines in the book are different in their stubborn and rebellious personalities. This paper has analyzed the creation models of Catherine, Heathcliff and Hindley, the protagonists in Wuthering Heights. It concentrates on two aspects: one is from the author’s personality, life experience and living environment to analyze Catherine and Hindley. It points out that the creation of Catherine Earnshaw comes from the author Emily Brontë herself, and her brother Branwell is the creation model of Hindley. The other one is through the approach of Archetypal Criticism, concentrating on a comparative analysis between Heathcliff and Medea in Greek myth Medea. Based on detailed analysis, it draws the conclusion that both Heathcliff’s and Medea’s revenge is the result of hatred and the loss of love and that Heathcliff is a “displacement” of Medea. This paper aims at digging out some hidden implications in the novel from a new and different perspective to provide the reader with more enlightenment and speculation and at the same time helping the reader get a deeper understanding of Emily Brontë.

[Key words] Emily Brontë; Catherine; Heathcliff; Hindley; archetype; creation models of main characters

【摘 要】 《咆哮山庄》是英国十九世纪著名小说家艾米莉·勃朗特的唯一一部长篇小说,被西方评论家视为维多利亚时期最伟大的作品之一,同时奠定了作者在英国文学史和世界文学史上的地位。《呼啸山庄》弥漫着一种既暴烈又多变,既真实又荒诞,既狂热又冷酷的奇特氛围。本文一方面从艾米莉·勃朗特的生活环境、个性特征和生活经历方面动身,指出《咆哮山庄》中凯瑟琳·恩肖的人物形象的创作灵感来源于作者艾米莉·勃朗特本人,辛德雷·恩肖这个人物形象的创作模型则是其兄布兰威尔,以此试图从一个新的角度发掘出《咆哮山庄》中尚未被发掘的一些新的意蕴和内涵,使读者对艾米莉·勃朗特更深刻、更透彻的了解;另一方面,用希腊神话中描述的爱的原形对比研究,展现了希刺克利夫桀骜不驯的性情,异乎寻常的爱、恨和复仇意识,提出了希刺克利夫就是希腊神话《美狄亚》中美狄亚的“移用”。艾米莉·勃朗特以诗人敏锐独特的想象,紧扣住大自然中的原始意象,把笔触伸入到了人物灵魂层面中的野性空间,向人们展示了那足以席卷一切的心灵风暴。

【关键词】 艾米莉·勃朗特;凯瑟琳;希刺克利夫;辛德雷;原型;人物创作模型


1.1 Emily Brontë’s life experience

Emily Brontë (1818--1848), novelist and poet, is one of the most famous representatives of the 19th century in English literature. Brontë sisters, Emily Brontë, Charlotte Brontë and Anne Brontë are the exotic flowers in literary field of 19th century England. Emily is born in Thornton of Yorkshire and grows up in Haworth, a village in north of England. Emily Brontë is first a poet. Her character and genius are shaped by the influence of her father. Patrick Brontë, the father, is of Irish stock and is known for his picturesque, free flowing speech, poetry and imagination. She is born a quiet girl, unsociable and uncommunicative, yet her inner heart is filled with passion, which can be seen in her poetry and novel. The English poet and critic, Matthew Arnold, says: “Her (Emily) extraordinary passion, feverish feelings, gloominess and boldness are incomparable after Byron.” And Virginia Woolf writes in her book Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights: “When Charlotte composes, she declares with eloquence, brilliance and passion that ‘I love’, ‘I hate’ and ‘I suffer’. But in Wuthering Heights, Emily looks forward to the world, by the hero’s mouth, she says not only ‘I love’ or ‘I hate’, but also ‘we, all the human beings’ and ‘you, the eternal power…’” Emily is chiefly remembered as the author of the powerful novel, Wuthering Heights. The novel describes the characters and environment of her native countryside, on the moors of north England. She enters her living conditions and her experiences as well as her individuality such as melancholy, passionate and eloquent into the works. Emily Brontë is good at seizing primary images and entering into the savagery field of spirits by her poetic imagination. She shows us the conflicts between the keen heart-storm and the factitious wilderness. Virginia Woolf also remarks: “Wuthering Heights is more different to understand than Jane Eyre, because Emily is a greater novelist than Charlotte.”

1.2 The publication of Wuthering Heights

Emily Brontë’s unique remarkable novel Wuthering Heights establishes her literary position. It is remarked as “the most peculiar novel”, and some of critics think of it as “Sphinx of literary history”, which is full of vigor and fierceness, leading readers into a world brimming with hatred and love, evil and kindness, weakness and stubbornness. However, at the beginning of its publication, it was not well received by the reading public, many of whom condemned it as sordid


, vulgar, and unnatural—and author Emily Brontë went to her grave in 1848 believing that her novel was a failure. It was not until 1850, when Wuthering Heights received a second printing with an introduction by Emily’s sister Charlotte, that it attracted a wide readership. And now it is widely recognized as one of the greatest novels of English literature. Ralph Fox, the revolutionary critic of England writes: “Wuthering Heights is beyond all doubt one of the most extraordinary books which human genius has ever produced.” [6] He regards it as the three greatest books of that age, “and the writer of the future will acknowledge them as his inspiration when he attempts the task of conquering reality”. [7]

Today, the novel is still heatedly discussed, some on the main characters’ destiny, some on the theme of Heathcliff’s revenge and some on the tragedy of Heathcliff and Catherine. This article deals with the creation models of main characters in Wuthering Heights. According to Jung, the contents of human psychology are essentially experienced, which can be displayed both by personal behaviors and psychological activities and by superstition, myth, religion and philosophy. [8] On one hand, the author’s personal experience plays an important part to help create the typical characters; on the other hand, the Greek myth provides the archetype to portray the characters. This paper divides five parts: introduction, an analysis of the creation of three main characters, Catherine, Heathcliff and Hindley, and the last part conclusion.

2.Catherine Earnshaw and Emily Brontë

The novel written by Emily is portrayed true to Victoria life which she is familiar with, it can be regarded as the real life of her own. “Wuthering Heights probably contains some factor of satisfying a long-cherished wish and imaginary life activities.” [9] Catherine molded by her is extremely the same as herself. Both of they experience the same living conditions which influence the shape of their personalities: stubborn and rebellious and their weak side of personalities brings about the tragic fate.

2.1 Living conditions

Emily and Catherine have shaped the same personality by the influence of living conditions. Emily lives in Haworth, which is a village of small, gray house on the side of a hill in the worth of England. To the west it is the boundless and uninhabited moors, not living plants but heather growing disorderly. Such living environment can be seen in Wuthering Heights. The environment plays an important role in creating the uniqueness of Emily Brontë and Catherine she creates. “She describes life according to the severe land she grows up and the more severe people of this land.”[10] Charlotte Brontë explained it in the book The Republication of Wuthering Heights: “It is imbued with local color. It enriches in wild nature, like the roots of heather. It adapts the nature because Emily Brontë was born and grew up on the moor, and she was nurtured by the moor.”[11] She experiences the bondless swamp and wilderness of Yorkshire and writes them in the imaginaries of her novel, where she grasps the primitive images of the nature with her sharp eyes to create the lifelike, feverish and amazing atmosphere. Undoubtedly, Wuthering Heights features the wilderness and windstorm. “The greatness and profoundness of Emily can only be built up by the cruel, lofty, gloomy and desolate land and sky of Yorkshire.” [12] At the beginning of the novel, Emily Brontë purposefully dates the story at the time so close to her, arranges the setting in the North, where she lives and which she is familiar with. “Wuthering” is a “significant provincial adjective, descriptive of the atmosphere tumult to which its station is expressed in stormy weather.” [13] Both are the moors, which have the same weather conditions, “The power of the north wind blowing over the edge, by the excessive slant of a few stunted firs at the end of the house; and by a range of gaunt thorns all stretching their limbs one way, as if craving alms of the sun.” [14] Such environment of the wilderness in the story reminds us of Harworth moor. The remote and gloomy atmosphere influences Emily Brontë. She is a desolate and lonely girl, always walking on the moors to spend time. Self-abased, introverted and melancholy as she is, she is not good at communicating with others, unwilling to live with others and keeping pretty much to herself. However, Emily Brontë longs for love and she pays more enthusiasm to social movement and is strongly opposed to formal religion. The features of moors shape her a willful, savage and stubborn individuality. She puts all the personalities into Catherine.

Catherine comes from a high-society family, who, as a child, could ride any horse in the stable, and in later years “rides roughshod” over everyone who tries to stand in her way. [15] “Her spirits were always at high-water mark, her tongue alw


ays going-singing, laughing and plaguing everybody who would not do the same. A wild, wick ship she was.” [16] She loves freedom, not constrained by the oppressive forces. She is a strong-minded, domineering girl. Just before his death, old Earnshaw’s only worry is, “Cathy, why can’t you be a good girl?” What kind of girl does her father want to be? He wants her to be an angelic girl—a gentle, obedient daughter. At this the rebellious Catherine mocks, “Why can’t you be a good father?” Emily here implies it is not “I” that “am not a good girl”, but “you”, Mr. Earnshaw, the authority of Wuthering Heights that is not a good father. “you”, the father should not confine “me” to the household and try to shape “me” more freedom, allow “me” to show “my” true nature, to do “singing and going”.[17] After the death of Mr. Earnshaw, she is ill-treated by her brother, Hindley, without getting a little warmth of the family. She is often punished standing at the cover of wall and is not allowed to eat. She is not allowed to be with Heathcliff. Yet the more he oppresses, the more eagerly she would rebel. Her nature calls her to grow up as rude as savage in order to live a free life. For Catherine and Heathcliff, it is one of the chief amusement to run away in the moors in the morning and remain her all day”.

Emily Brontë lives in the village of Haworth; she is influenced by the people there, who are blunt, stubborn, vigorous, rude, harsh and brutal. “Hear all, see all and say nothing. Eat all, drink all and play nothing.”[18] This is the Yorkshire creed that embodies deeply in its people’s soul. It is these moors that exalt the spirit of Emily Brontë and shapes her stubborn character. She looks motionless in her appearance but her inner world is sensitive and unyielding. She is a girl of few words, and she is apt to be gloomy, depressed, inwardly angry and stubborn because of her introverted personality. Mrs. Elizabeth Cleghorn Caskell writes in Life of Charlotte Brontë: “Once her favourite dog broke the pastor housing rules and slept on the bed, and she was angry and bit the dog with naked fists.” [19] Just as Charlotte says in her letters: “ The unyielding charm and plain personality join together in Emily. Her innocent feelings and openhearted attitude hide the determined character and ranging flames, which is enough to encourage heroes and boil their blood.”[20] Emily Brontë transfers her true nature to Catherine, especially her extraordinarily rebellious personality.

2.2 Personalities

From Emily Brontë, we can see the shadow of Catherine who is brave, strongwilled and more important, rebellious.

Although Catherine was born in a noble family, yet she falls in love with Heathcliff without any fear. Heathcliff is a waif picked up by Mr. Earnshaw. He is a dark-skinned gipsy, “as dark almost as if came from the devil”. [21] He is not welcome in Wuthering Heights even the maid Helly hates him. But Catherine shows happiness and sympathy with him and they played innocently together. “She was much too fond of Heathcliff. The greatest punishment we could invent for her was to keep her separate from him: yet she got childed more than any of us on his account.” [22] Says Nelly. She loves Heathcliff heartily, to her, Heathcliff is innermost herself. When we talk about Catherine’s love betrayal to Heathcliff, we can’t condemn her any way. She knows it is false to marry Edgar: “ In whichever place the soul lives. In my soul and in my heart, I’m convinced I’m wrong!” [23] She devotes all her painstaking efforts into her love to Heathcliff. It is not Edgar is “handsome, pleasant to be with”, “young and cheerful” [24] that she marries him, but she says if she marries Linton, she can aid Heathcliff to rise, and place him out of her brother’s power. She knows her love for Edgar will change, while her love for Heathcliff will remain firm, which she acknowledges from her heart:

“ My great miseries in this world have been Heathcliff’s miseries, and I watched and felt each from the beginning; my great thought in living is himself. If all else perished, and he remained, I should still continue to be, and if all else remained and he were annihilated, the universe would turn to a mighty stronger. I should not seem a part of it. My love for Linton is like the foliage in the woods. Time will change it, I’m well aware, as winter changes the trees. My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneath—a source of little visible delight, but necessary. Nelly, I am Heathcliff!” [25] Heathcliff is part of her, representing her innermost self, yearning for freedom. By choosing Edgar for her husband and rushing into the arms of the Grange, Catherine sacrifices her true love. In Grange she suffers a lot, she “has been concerted, at a stroke, into Mrs. Linton, the lady of the Grange, and the wife of a stranger; an exile, an outcast, therefore, from what had been my world. You may fancy a glimpse of the


abyss where I groveled.” [26] She considers her whole life—the seven years under oppressed patriarchal society as a blank and she loses her freedom. Though Catherine dies, but what she remains to the reader is admiration and veneration. One shows admiration and veneration to her because her willful nature sounds stranger than ever. She dares to love whom she loves and she dares to seek for freedom that she yearns for. Like Catherine, Emily Brontë has the same rebellious personality and indomitable spirit. Her poem shows her these qualities:

“No coward soul is mine,

No tremble in the world’s storm-troubled sphere;

I see Heaven’s glories shine,

And faith shine equal, arming me from fear.”[27]

“Stronger than a man, simpler than a child, her nature stood alone.” [28] Her sister Charlotte Brontë uses this word to describe her. Her strong will and acting of her own way would never shrinks from being opposed and difficulties. She is favor of the heathers on the moors and venerates the precipice. The heathers and cliffs are the symbols of her real personality. Mrs. Caskell writes another occasion in Life of Charlotte Brontë: “Emily was bit by the wild dog which she took in. Realizing that she may suffer from the insidious danger of hydrophobia, she ran to the kitchen, using the heated soldering iron to burn the wound.” [29]

2.3 Tragedy destiny

The weak side of their characters brings about the tragedy destiny. At Victorian times, marriage is well-matched in social and economic status. Catherine cannot get rid of the old traditional trammels, though she loves Heathcliff deeply. She is seduced by the refined and tranquil Thrushcross Grange. Her visit to the Grange preludes the tragedy of their love. Looking through the window of the Grange, Catherine sees a world completely different from the bleak and deckling Heights. It is an attractive place, possessing everything that Heathcliff doesn’t have—social position, wealth and comfortable life. She decides to marry Edgar Linton, because she wants “to be the greatest woman of the neighborhood.’’ [30] In fact, choosing Edgar, she is deliberately false to her own world, just as what Heathcliff comments: an oak is planted in a flowerpot. So when Heathcliff returns, she is eager to feel the value of her existence in him. She tries to reconcile her feeling with what Linton represents, but the two sides can’t be reconciled at all. She can’t bear such suffering, falls in ill and never recovers.

Catherine dies at the birth of her daughter Cathy and Emily Brontë, the creator of Catherine, dies at the age of thirty. Emily Brontë is born an introverted girl, just as Charlotte Brontë says: “My sister (Emily) was born unsociable, and the environment made her tend to be desolate and aloof. She almost stayed at home all day long unless she went to the church or walked on the moors.” [31] Meanwhile, she suffers from the death of her aunt and brother, and she herself is on a bad health condition, all of which leave the dark side of her heart and bring her tragedy fate as Catherine: dies in her youthful years.

In a word, Catherine is a vivid and lifelike Emily. Catherine’s marriage reflects that Emily’s inner world: she can’t avoid the tragedy of losing freedom. The grief that Catherine feels after she becomes Mrs. Linton is just like Emily’s grief of losing freedom. Emily puts her true self into Catherine, to whom she devotes all her vehement passions, fanatical love and unyielding rebellion. It may say Catherine is Emily’s true self and the external image of her mental sense.

3. Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights and Medea in Greek myth Medea

Another important character is Heathcliff. What kind of person is Heathcliff? We can see the comments that other characters put on him.

Isabella writes to Nelly, “Is Mr. Heathcliff a man? If so, is he mad? And if not, is he a devil? … a tiger or a venomous serpent could not rouse terror in me equal to that which he wakens.” [32]

Nelly says he is “rough as a saw edge, and hard as whinstone!” [33]

Edgar tells little Cathy: “Heathcliff is a most diabolical man, delighting to wrong and ruin those he hates, if they give him the slightest opportunity.” [34]

Even Catherine says: “What is Heathcliff—an unreclaimed creature, without refinement—without cultivation; an arid wilderness of furze and whinstone.” [35]

He falls deep in love with Catherine yet his hatred is beyond description. He would dig the grave and embrace Catherine’s body in order that his soul can join with hers. His revenge almost destroys two families. “He is a fierce, pitiless, wolfish man.” [36]

As a country girl, Emily Brontë has no complicated life experiences. She never falls in love with someone nor is loved by somebody. She spends all her life in Yorkshire and doesn’t have the chance to witness the life in industrial society. She seems a hermit, holding herself aloof from


the world. How can Emily portray such a twisted character with his extraordinary love and hatred?

The archetype literature is one of other patterns to create characters in literary works, and it comes from myth after all. “Myth is the main stimulative power, which endows the heroes the archetypal sense and gives myth the archetypal narration, thus myth is the archetype.”[37] Wuthering Heights written by Emily can be said the typical example of such theory.

Comparing with the Greek myth, Medea, Wuthering Heights has exactly the same theme and the creation of Heathcliff’s personality benefits from the character Medea. It can be said that Heathcliff is a “displacement” of Medea. [38]

3.1 The cause of revenge

The cause of Heathcliff’s revenge is the same as Medea. Both are desperate from love and lead to hatred and then begin to revenge.

Medea is the daughter of King Kolkhis. She believes Iason’s pledge that he will love her forever, and she betrays her own country, kills her brother, helps Iason take back golden wooden and kill his enemies, and comes to Korinthos with him. There they have two sons and live a happy life for years. Unfortunate things happen thereafter. Iason abandons Medea and marries Korinthos Princess in order to gain power and high position. And Medea is expelled out of his country by King Korinthos. She twists all her love to hatred and she begins to revenge Iason’s betrayal and mercilessness. First, she burns Iason’s new wife, then she kills Iason’s and also her two sons, from which she thinks Iason will be afflicted for losing sons and will never be happy. After the success of revenge, she runs away to Anthem by the help of “Deus ex Machina”.

Readers who are familiar with Wuthering Heights may find that it tells the story of Heathcliff’s revenge. Heathcliff is a gipsy waif of unknown parentage. He is picked up by Mr. Earnshaw in the street and brought up with his children. He is treated well by Mr. Earnshow, but when the old man dies, the young master Hindley bullies him. He is deprived of the right of receiving education and even reduces to the position of a servant. Yet he is not desperate because he has Catherine to understand him and love him. Then comes the turning point. Catherine decides to marry Linton. All the sufferings make him to be a cruel and savage revenger. He makes all the property in the name of his and Hindley indulges in drunk and dies from it. Then he always goes to Thrushcross Grange to meet Catherine in order that Linton suffers from mental torments. Catherine’s death strengthens his revenge. Just as Medea, Heathcliff aims his hatred at the second generation. He controls Wuthering Heights, and takes an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. He trains Hareton as an idiot and lives in the shadow of him. In order to defraud Edger of his money and belongings, he urges Cathy, daughter of Edger, to marry with his dying son by cheat. Besides, he torments Hareton and Cathy physically and mentally, even his own son, small Linton, gains little love from him. From Medea and Heathcliff, we can find the same personalities. They are full of love and they cannot put up with lovers’ betrayal. Their characters are twisted because of losing love, and they become merciless, hard-hearted, ruthless and inhuman. In Emily’s eyes, “man’s dignity could not be injured, and injuring would bring a great mound in the soul. When injuring was beyond the limit, it could make Bodhisattva to become a devil.”[39]

3.2 Unfortunate experiences

Both Heathcliff and Medea bear unfortunate experiences, which becomes the foundation of shaping their characters. Medea betrays her country and families, coming to a place far from home, lonely and miserable. Heathcliff is a waif: “in the streets of Liverpool, where he (Mr. Earnshaw) picked up and inquired for his owner. Not a soul knew to whom it belonged.” [40] Two children entirely refuse to have it in bed with them, or even in their room. Even the maid Nelly looks down upon him. She would put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it might be gone on the next morning. In such an alien environment, they rely heavily on the lovers of their own—they are their life and their soul. However, they meet with the same misfortune; due to the worldly moral and more important, the temptation of money and power, they lose their lovers. Their rivals in love are so powerful— one is a princess and the other is a son of the rich— that they cannot use the social power to compete with them at all. The only measure they can take is to revenge: Medea murders her sons and enemies with her own hands and Heathcliff kills his son and foes indirectly.

3.3 Mental quality

Heathcliff and Medea have the same mental quality: Medea is “the princess of a savage country”, and Heathcliff is “a tempest son”. First, they are passionate, yearn for freedom and dare to love and detest. Loving Iason, Medea abandons her country and families, and Heathcliff regards Catheri


ne as his life and soul, when Catherine is dying, he cries: “ I cannot live without my life! I cannot live without my soul.” [41] And even she dies, he cobs to the window, “Come in! Come in! Cathy, do come. Oh, do – once more! Oh, my heart’s darling! Hear me this time, Catherine, at last!” [42] A person as he is, Heathcliff has to bear between love and hatred, and because of the depth of his passion, he hates as deeply as he loves. Second, their hatred makes one’s hair stand on end: when she is told that her rival in love died, Medea says to the information deliver, “Don’t be hasty, my friend, tell me how they died. If they died miserably, you can double my joy.” [43] Heathcliff goes even further than Medea. Hareton is brought up by him, he just wants to see “if one tree won’t grow as crooked as another, with the same wind to twist it”. [44] When Hareton becomes a rough and muddle-headed fellow full dirty words, he speaks out his great pleasure without any reservation: just as Medea, Heathcliff felt no guilty. They love fiercely and hate vigorously. What’s more, the properties of love and hatred of Medea and Heathcliff are resembled. The hatred to their enemies and innocent is from love; it is the alienation of love. It is the frustrated love that spurs them to commit atrocities. They are unable to hold back their animosity to those who betray them, just as a madman cannot be responsible for what he has done. Heathcliff is distorted to be a ghoul, a vampire, and Medea is the murder of her own sons, all of which are because of their lovers’ betrayal.

In short, the creation model of Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights is Medea, the heroine of Greek myth Medea. Love and hatred—two poles of human being have been portrayed in Medea and Heathcliff to the full. Reading their stories, one will not hate Medea and Heathcliff any more, in contrast, feel sympathy with them. Mr. Fang Ping ever said: “love is the blue flame, pure and beautiful; ‘hatred’ is the red flame that is giving off black smoke.”[45] That is to say, the hatred here is not real hatred, it is the alienation of love; malice originates the frustrated love, which is recognized in psychology. Based on comparing the two revengers, Medea and Healthcliff, their commitments are reasonable to some extent, and their distorted characters can be further understood.

4. Hindley Earnshaw and Emily Brontë’s brother Branwell

Hindley is jealous to Heathcliff because he is deprived love from his father, and Mr. Earnshaw “took to Heathcliff strangely, believing all he said and petting him up far above Cathy.” [46] After the old man dies, he beats Heathcliff to the lowest of the world, and destroys and torments him. He becomes a tyrant. “He drove him from their company to the servants, deprived him of the instruction of the curate (their teacher), and insisted that he should labour out of doors instead, compelling him to do so as hard as any hand on the farm.” [47] But the result he gains is not good. He degenerated at last and even his old servant looks down upon him.

As to Hinley’s tragedy, many critics comment that it results from Heathcliff’s revenge. In fact, he becomes depressed and dispirited after his wife’s death. “He became more and more desperate. His grief cannot be cured by crying out. In fact, he never cries or prays but curses and resists—he harbours a bitter hatred for God and for human beings, so he indulges in drinking and lives a loose life unscrupulously.” [48] It is obvious that he creates the tragedy with his own hands. The tragedy roots from the accidental lost of love. As the saying goes: “Love is the whole life for women, but only a small part for man.” It may suit to most of people but Hindley is an exception. In his own world, there are only two persons, his wife and himself, losing her, he always drinks as a lord, and he is willing to send his heat to perdition, even he lacks of the minimum responsibility—raising little son. There is no sunshine in his life, only the hatred to Heathcliff, and the meaning of his rest life is to take back what he lost. Living in the decadent and dark house, there is nothing left but hatred in his heart, even his own son is hostile to him and loves and believes his enemy.

Emily endows Hindley with a grey tragedy. In fact, Hindley is the model of Emily’s brother, Branwell. The man who is placed great hopes by his families but lets everyone disappointed at last. He is smooth in his life, he always abandons himself, yet there is still a hope of saving himself, that is, the love in his heart—he falls in love with Mrs. Robinson, the rich mother of his pupil. For months this lady has spoken kindly to Branwell, walks with him in garden, talks to him alone in the evenings. He thinks she loves him and would marry him. But when the cruel and ugly reality lays on his hand—he is driven away from Mrs. Robinson’s house, he feels desperate, because he thinks the unique love in his heart is broken. He become


s worse and worse, spending more and more time drinking, and taking laudanum and walking alone on the moors and then dies soon. His death should be the spiritual way out to Brontë sisters, but they think: “The error and guilt have been forgotten, only the pity and grieve occupy our heart.”[49] So when we discuss the original tragedy of Hindley, the creation model of Branwell can be found easily.

Branwell is the only son of Brontë family so he is pampered by his father and sisters; meanwhile he becomes imperious and easy to lose tempers. It is the same to Hindley. He is also the only son of old Earnshaw and he becomes the new master of Wuthering Heights. He can revile anybody at will and bring pains and disaster to his family. They also experience losing true love and become degenerated, drown their sorrows in liquor, and suffer the same destiny: die in youthful years.

Emily loves his brother very much. She devotes her youth to her bad-behaved but unfortunate brother. We can reasonably believe that his resisting love to Mrs. Robinson carves in her heart so inveterately that she realizes that desperate love can destroy man to death. Brawnwell’s intensive grief, hysterical crying and desperation provide Emily a vivid model. Only she witnesses her brother’s suffering and grief in love can she create a vivid Hindley. Hindley’s drowning this sorrow in liquor, deep love in his wife Frances is well represented in her novel.

Emily Brontë finds the models of heroes and heroines from her actual life and Greek myth she ever read. The figures in Wuthering Heights are always with gloomy faces, distorted souls and abnormal personality. Degeneration, painful struggling and revenge are their containment of life. They live in a hell on earth, where people detest each other and no worldly love and warmth among them, all of which have their literary archetypes.

5. Conclusion

Emily Brontë is regarded as one of the most representative writers out of the mainstream of the novels in the 19th century. On one hand, the archetype of literature plays a significant part on the creation of typical characters in Wuthering Heights. Greek myth and drama is one of literature archetypes, which is close to the real world. As Jung says: “The typical environment determines the archetypes of literature. When the environment to a given archetype reappearances, the archetype will activate.” [50] On the other hand, Emily Brontë’s living conditions and experiences as well as her individuality help her to create the main characters. The primitive environment can arouse attraction easily, so the nature’s savagery and wilderness provides her with a typical stage to shape the personalities of the characters. In addition, her boundless imagination and realistic depiction serve better for the portrayal of the characters. In brief, Emily Brontë successfully utilizes the techniques of expression models from real life and myth to portray some very perfect artistic figures, which makes the characters more typical and the plot more complicated and vivid, offering more aftertaste to readers.


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